Found on flickr.
For more information on former Soviet Union photographic oddities, please consult this guide.
Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii uses a specially designed view camera that creates three separate monochromatic negatives at once. By applying red, green and blue filters to selectively cut colour transmittance, he collects red, green and blue tones on separate negatives, which can later be combined during printing using similar filters to create colour images. All this in 1905!